Cementing well

CEMENTING

The following topics well be discussed:

> Functions of cement

> The manufacture of cement

> Classes and types of cement

> Basic components of cement

> Cement slurry

> Hydration of cement

> Sulphate resistance

> Strength retrogression of cement and the use of silica flour

> Properties of cement slurry

> Casing accessories

> Cement contamination

> Mechanics of cementing

> Liner cementing

> Practical calculations

> Squeeze cementing

> Plugging back operations

Functions of cement

> Restriction of fluid movement between permeable zones

> Provision of mechanical support of the casing string

> Protection of casing from corrosion

> Support of the well-bore walls to prevent collapse of formations

The manufacture and composition of cement

> Raw material from calcareous and argillaceous rocks (limestone, clay, shale and slag)

> Dry raw materials finely ground and mixed in correction proportions (kiln feed)

> Chemical compositions of dry mix determined and adjusted

> Kiln feed fed at a uniform rate in a sloping rotary kiln

> The mixture travels at the lower end

> Powdered coal, fuel oil or gas, fired into the kiln

> Temperature reached to 2600-2800 F (1427-1538 C), calcined

> Chemical reactions o raw materials took place and a new material formed (clinker)

> The clinker varies in size from dust to particles of several inches in diameter

> The clinkers sent to air cooler, quenched and put into storage (storage time)

> The clinker ground with a controlled amount of gypsum (Portland cement)

> Cement packed and transported for customers

> Gypsum between 1 to 3% to control setting and hardening of

cement

cement


Considerations After Cementing

Cementing


Classes of cement

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