Cementing well

Classes of cement

Nine API classes:

> Class A

• Depth surface — 6000 ft (1830 m)

• No special properties

• Similar to ASTM C 150,Type I

> Class B

• Depth surface — 6000 ft (1830 m)

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• Similar to ASTM C 150 Types II

> Class C

• Depth surface — 6000 ft (1830 m)

• High early strength

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• Similar to ASTM C 150 Types III

> Class D

• Depth from 6000 ft — 10,000 ft (1830 m — 3050 m)

• Moderate and high sulphate resistance

• Moderately high pressure and temperature

> Class E

• Depth from 10,000 ft — 14,000 ft (3050 m — 4270 m)

• Moderate and high sulphate resistance

• High pressure and temperature

> Class F

• Depth from 10,000 ft — 16,000 ft (3050 m — 4270 m)

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• Extremely high pressure and temperature

> Class G

• Depth surface — 8000 ft (2440 m), as basic cement, fine

• Can be used with accelerators and retarders for other specifications

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• No addition other than calcium sulphate or water

> Class H

• Depth surface — 8000 ft (2440 m), as basic cement, course

• Can be used with accelerators and retarders for other specifications

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• No addition other than calcium sulphate or water

> Class J

• Depth 12,000 — 16,000 ft (3660 m — 4880 m)

• Extremely high pressure and temperature

• Can be used with accelerators and retarders for other specifications

• Moderate to high sulphate resistance

• No addition other than calcium sulphate or water

Class

Water,%

Depth, ft

Temp. F

Properties

A

46

0 — 6000

80-170

Ordinary class, normal properties, T.T. (90 min)

B

46

0 — 6000

80-170

HSR or MSR, T.T (90 min)

C

56

0 — 6000

80-170

MSR, HES, fine (90 min)

D(retarded)

38

6000-10000

170-290

HSR or MSR, coarse (120)

E(retarded)

38

10000-14000

170-290

HSR or MSR, (154)

F(retarded)

38

10000-16000

230-320

Only in HSR, (180)

G

38

ALL depths

 

HSR, or MSR, fine

H

38

ALL depths

 

OSR or MSR, coarse

J

38

12000-16000

 

For temp. > 230 F, HSR

M: Medium H: High O: Ordinary S: Sulfate R: Resistance E: earlyT.T. Thickening Time

Portland Cement

Basic components of cement

Component

Formula

Trade

name

Amount

%

Function

Tricalcium

silicate

3Ca0.Si02

C3S

50%

Fastest

hydration

Overall and

early strength

Protect

sulphate

attack

Dicalcium

Silicate

2Ca0.Si02

C2S

25%

Slow reacting Responsible for gradual increase in strength

Tricalcium

Aluminate

3Ca0.A1203

C3A

10%

Initial set and early strength

Tetracalcium

Aluminum

Ferrite

4CaO. A1203. Fe203

C4AF

10%

Initial set and early strength Low heat of hydration

Other oxides such as gypsium, sulphate magnesia, free lime

 

 

5%

 

> The effect they have on properties of the cement have made it possible to develop cements for special applications by varying the raw material used in manufacture:

> By increasing C3S content a high early strength can be obtained.

> At low heat of hydration cement is made by decreasing both C3S and C3A.

> High amounts of C3A, due to its high reaction speed and exothermic reaction, decreases the setting time of the slurry.

> Hydration of cement gives off considerable heat about 80 calories per gram of cement (80 BTU/lb).

> Maximum release of heat is obtained about 4 to 6 hours after hydration.

> The selection of cement and additives broadly resolves into choosing an economical material that may be satisfactory placed to achieve the required specifications after placement.

> The difference between construction cement and oil well cement are:

> No aggregate is added to oil well cement

> Large volumes of water are used in oilwell cements to make the slurry pumpable.

Cement hydration

> Dry cement mixed with water

> Slurry subjected to differential pressure and temperature

> Water is lost to formation by dehydration or evaporation

> Chemical reaction occurs (exothermal reaction)

> Hydrous compounds form an interlocking crystalline structure

> Structure bonds to casing and rock surfaces

Properties affecting selection of cement type

Slurry density

> Should be the same as mud to minimize the risk or blowouts or lost circulation

> Measured using mud balance

> Low density are prepared with bentonite, pozzolan, gilsonite, perlite, Diatomacous earth

> Bentonite is used in concentration up to 35%, the rduction is due to water added.

> Each 1% of bentonite needs 4% of water.

> One sack cement equals 94 lbs (50 kg) and measure 1 cu. ft

> Density increases by adding barite, iron ores or galena

> Each 1% of needs 0.2% increase in mixing water.

Thickening Time

> Determine the length of time the slurry can be pumped

> It is the time necessary for the slurry consistenecy to reach 100 poises under stimulated bottom hole pressure and temperature

> Measured using cement consistometer

> Thickening time is affected by:

> Pumping rate: eddies and currents resulting from turbulent flow increases thickening time.

> Fineness to which the clinker is ground

> Additives: accelerators to decrease thickening time, retarders to increase it.

> Accelerators are calcium chloride.

> Retarders are calcium lignosulphonate, pozzolan and CMHECand

> Accelarators are used to cement shallow wells and surface casings.

> Retarders are used for cementing deep and hot wells.

> In practice the thickening time should be at least 25% higher than the time necessary to accomplish the

Cement Strength

> Cement in oil wells is subjected to static and dynamic stresses

> Static stress due to dead weight of pipe; compressive stresses due to the action of fluid and formations

> Dynamic stresses resulting from drilling operation, especially the vibration of drill string

> To withstand these stresses a compressive strength of 500 psi after 24 hours period is needed

> High early strength possesses strength higher than ordinary strength in the first 30 hours.

> Density reduction materials always decreases cement strength

> Retarders reduce both early and late strength

> Fine sand increases final cement strength

> Strength retrograte between 80 to 120 C

> Silica flour is added to prevent temperature effect

Filtration

> Water loss of neat cement is very high

> Laboratory tests show that up to 50% of mixing water is lost by filtration through rock or filter papers

> Presence of small thickness mud cake reduces filtration

> High density slurry results in higher filtration loss

> Additives to reduce filtration are bentonite, organic colloids (CMHEC)

Permeability

> Naturally, permeability of set cement should be the lowest possible.

> Bentonite cements are known to be very permeable (values up to 10 md are reported, while special cements (latex cement) have permeabilities as low as one micodarcy.

> The following factors influence the permeability of the set cement:

• Water/cemet ratios: High W/C ratio increases the permeability

• Downhole conditions: high pressure and confinement due to their compacting effects decrease the permeability of set cement

Perforating Qualities

> Ordinary cements, when they are completely hardened, fracture excessively when perforated.

> Low strength cements are usually less brittle and have less tendency to shatter upon perforating.

> Shattering of cement is not a desired quality when near an O.W.C. orO.G.C.

> Additives such as bentonite, pozzolan and latex increase the ductility of set cement.

Corrosion Resistance

> Set cement could be penetrated by corrosive liquids especially those containing C03 os S04 irons.

> Cement corrosion decreases the final compressive strength render the cement more permeable.

> Reduction of the hardening time improves the cement resistance to corrosion by corrosive fluids.

Bond Requirements

> For clean surfaces (rock or metal) the bond increases with time and moderate temperatures.

> Mud cake and dirty casing surfaces reduce markedly the bond between casing or rock and cement.

> Additives such as salt and fine sand increases the bond between casing and the set cement.

Other Cement Types

> Pozzolanic Cements (pozzolan + Portland CMT or lime pozzolan cement)

> Pozzolan (siliceous rocks of volcanic origin) is added to portland cements or used with lime (lime-pozzolan cement).

> Pozzolan cements have higher permeability times than most conventional.

> Pozzolanic cements are light ducle and they are proved to be satisfactory deep well cements.

> Perlite Cement (Perlite + ordinary portland + bentonite)

> Perlite cements are prepared by adding perlite to ordinary portland.

> Perlite is a light volcanic ore, when heated to fusion it gives rise to a very low-density product (13 lb/ft3).

> Bentonite is usually added to perlite cement slurries to disperse perlite more uniformly through the mixture. Perlite cements are very expensive.

> Diesel Oil Cements (DOC) [Latex + CMT + water]

> A portland cement to which; a surface active agent is added, it is designed for, mixing with diesel oil.

> Will not set and hardens unless it comes in contact with water.

> Used for shutting off; water production from completion interval of a well.

> Latex cement [Latex + CMT + Water)

> Composed of latex, cement and water.

> Used for plug back jobs for water exclusion.

> Especially resistant to oil and mud contamination.

> Gives a high strength bond with casing and rocks.

Water Supply

> Fresh water is suitable for cement, provided that is found sufficient quantities. Some water contains humic acid that acts as a retarder to hardening.

> Some rig water is found to contain phosphates, tannates (thinners used for mud), and those chemicals can seriously retard the setting of cement.

> The usual water cement ratio is 45% (5.2 gal/sack) of dry cement; 500 gal per cementing unit should be provided for priming, testing, and cleaning up.

> An additional 5130 gal should be provided as a minimum safety margin.

> Rate of water supply should be based on the rate of mixing cement: usually this is 5-6 bbl/min. for each pumping unit on the job.

> Hot mixing water may result in shorter allowable pumping time. Cold water may provide viscous slurry during mixing.

Cementing Equipment and Accessories

> In order to achieve the desired objective in cementing, special equipment has been designed

Cementing Plugs

> It consists of an aluminum body encased in a molded rubber cast in the desired shape.

> Bottom plug is used ahead of the cement t prevent contamination with the mud ahead of the slurry and it wipes off the film of the mud that adhears to the inside of the casing.

> When it reaches the float collar, the diaphragm in the plug ruptures to permit the cement slurry to proceed down the casing and up the annulus.

> Top plug serves to signal the proper placement of the slurry and prevents mixing of cement and displacing fluid.

> Strong undiluted cement is specially desirable near the casing shoe.

Wall Scratchers

> They are used to improve the bonding properties of cement to the formation by removing the mud cake from the wall of the hole.

> They are reciprocating or rotating.

> Reciprocating scratchers are normally spaced at 15-20 ft intervals through out the section to be cemented, but rotating are usually placed opposite the pay zone only.

> Casing that is equipped with reciprocating scratchers will be worked up and down for a distance depending on the spacing of the devices on the casing

Centralizers

These devices are designed to:

> Ensure a reasonable uniform distribution around the casing

> Obtain a competent seal between the casing and the formation

> Centralizers must have sufficient strength to center the casing reasonably in the hole and must leave enough space for the flow of circulating fluid.

Floating Equipment

> It normally consists of a guide shoe attached to the bottom end of the lower length of the casing and a float collar attached to the top of the last joint of the casing.

Casing Guide Shoes

> A guide shoe is basically a short section of steel pipe with the lower end rounded to facilitate passage of the casing through irregular places in the borehole.

> The lower portion of the guide shoe contains cement shock absorbing characteristics of the shoe. It also usually contains a backpressure valve arranged to permit circulation form the inside of the casing to the outside only.

> The primary purpose o this valve assembly is to prevent the cement slurry from reentering the inside of the casing after it had been placed.

> Also it allows the casing to be floated down the hole. That is, the inside of the casing of the casing is lift empty, or only partly filed to reduce the load on the derrick.

First Collar

> If the lowest joint of the casing is left filled with cement, the hazards of a pore cement job at the bottom of the casing are reduced.

> If the top of the cement is slightly contaminated with the displacing fluid, the contaminated portion will probably be lift in this last joint of casing.

> The collar joint has a back pressure valve similar to that of the guide shoe.

> The internal diameter of the float collar is reduced by cement or other drillable materials to provide a positive seat for the cementing plugs.

Casing Cementing Heads

> It is used to provide continuous cementing operations.

> A cementing head is fixed to the topmost joint and designed to receive the cement plug(s).

> Modern heads provide a quick change cap that can be removed to insert the cement plug.

> he bottom plug is inserted through the plug container into the casing before mixing starts.

> The top plug is loaded into the cementing head through the cap, resting on a special support bar that can be released by turning a

specially designed releasing handle. Bottom plus is released a head of cement, top plug behind the cement.

Cone Jet Mixer

> Jet mixers making use of venturi effect are very popular. Mixer of this type is simple in design reliable and rugged in operation. Control mixing rate is dependent upon:

> Regulation of the volume of water forced through the jet, and

> Keeping the hopper full of dry cement.

> A by-pass line can supply extra water for lowering slurry weight by increase of water cement ratio.

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